Monday, June 3, 2013

The Occupation of Constantinople

The Occupation of Constantinople (November 13, 1918 – September 23, 1923) was the occupation of the capital of the Ottoman Empire by the British, French and Italian following the Armistice of Mudros which ended Ottoman participation in the First World War. The first French troops entered the city on November 12, 1918, followed by British troops the next day. The Italian troops landed in Galata on February 7, 1919.[2] The occupation had two stages: the occupation was in accordance with the Armistice from November 13, 1918 to March 16, 1920; from March 16, 1920, it was made lasting by the Treaty of Sevres, until that was overridden by the Treaty of Lausanne, signed July 24, 1923. The last Allied troops departed from the city on September 23, 1923. The first Turkish troops entered the city on October 6, 1923. Allied troops occupied based on the sections of Constantinople and set up an Allied military administration beginning early in December 1918. It was the only time the city had changed hands since the Ottoman Turks took control of Constantinople in 1453.

So, when the players are in Constantinople, it'll be towards the end of the occupation.  Its a time of change in Turkey.  The Ottoman Empire has ended, theres a war going between Greece and Turkey, Constantinople is an occupied city filled with refugees from the Russian Civil War, Soldiers and all sorts of other people: truely an international city.

Just a peaceful view of Constantinople

 And a view of  Turkish protests against the occupation, 
Constantinople, May 23, 1919

British occupation forces at the port of Karaköy, in front of the coastal tram line.
The art nouveau style building in the background is the Turkish Maritime Lines (Türkiye Denizcilik İşletmeleri) headquarters

A couple soldiers in a rail yard in Constantinople.

HMS M1, in Constantinople.

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